Maybe this question reflects a huge gap in my knowledge, but...
It seems that you don't really need to know the notes you are playing when you're soloing on guitar. You need to know the key, and what scale/mode/position to play in, but you don't actually need to think "ok, this is the key of G# major, which means C# Lydian, which means C#, D#, F, G, G# etc...
You just need to know "ok, C# Lydian starts here. Now play notes from the Lydian mode for which you have all the finger positions memorized.
Or like if you're doing a diminished arpeggio, you don't need to be able to compute the notes in that arpeggio, you just need to know one of them, find it, and then play the rest based on their relative position on the neck.
But I don't suppose it works that way on keyboard, does it? There are no finger positions you can just move up and down the keyboard without thinking.
Even chords are like this. On guitar, you know how to play a major bar chord. Make sure the bottom note is right, and then play the chord and it's a major chord. You don't even need to think about what notes are in that chord.
But on keyboard that doesn't work, either. Play a C major. Now move it one white key to the right and oops, it's a minor chord now.
So are keyboardists really good at music theory, then, to be able to know what notes are in what modes and in what keys? I'm sure it becomes subconscious eventually, but it seems like the learning curve is much harder.
I feel like piano's significantly more straightforward, because its visually easy. I played tuba and since nothing is visual, it was waaaay harder, same with trumpet x 100 because trumpet's hard as fuck. This is all in me inexperienced experience.