When I want to spend some time working on scales, I pick a key, map out all the modes 3 notes per string and then work on one key per week or so. This week I am working in G-Major. I just run up and down through each mode for about a half hour or so, then take my favorite licks and progressions and transpose them, then maybe blow through arpeggios for a while. This helps me get the neck memorized for a particular key.
Then I may record a quick vamp and noodle around that key for a while.
For me, once I started transposing my favorite licks between the keys I find it easier to at least be able to play in a different key. It may not be earth shattering new licks, but at least I can be sort of comfortable and get around without hitting too many clams.
I avoid patterns unless I am working on my picking or legato in particular.